MALTA - THE HISTORY OF THE COINAGE PREFACE Coins are a tangible proof of history and combining numismatics with history is one of the best ways of illustrating a country’s historic events, rulers and chronological passage through history. Malta – the History of the Coinage, containing four chapters , covers the coins from Punic Malta to the present times, each chapter illustrating the intricate coinage. Though history is dealt with briefly, the dates, events and names of rulers are detailed chronologically and precise. Chapter one, Ancient Malta, lists the main events in Malta during Carthaginian, Greek and Roman rules. Crawford’s and Sear’s companion volumes are used as reference. In Chapter two, Medieval Malta, an era left completely in the dark until now illustrates for the first time the coins of the Byzantines, Arabs, Normans, Swabians, Angevines, Aragonese and Castillians. As reference, Rodolfo Spahr’s standard works, ‘Le Monete Siciliane – Dai Bizantini a Carlo I d’Angio’; and ‘Dagli Aragonesi ai Borboni’ are used. In Chapter three and four a coin in each denomination in gold, silver and bronze of each ruler is described and illustrated. Restelli – Sammut’s standard book ‘The Coinage of the Knights in Malta’ and Seaby’s ‘Coins of England’ are used as reference. Chapter four also includes coins issued by the Malta Government since 1972. The book is supplemented with chronological lists of rulers from the Roman Emperors up to the British Governors. Maps, especially of Ancient times, Tables of denominations, reports on Hoards and museum reports enhance the book. Several people have assisted me in preparing this work and I am deeply indebted to Chev. Joseph C. Sammut, Professor Daniel Massa and Mrs. Mary Dugo for their valuable advice; Mr. Godwin Said Director, Said International Ltd. the Publishers, and also to Mr. Andre de Clermont, Director Spink & Son Ltd., London for his kindness for writing the foreword.